Tag Archives: Simone Gatto

Cultivar: mainly Femminello
Geographical origin: Sicily (Syracuse, Acireale and Palermo)

Lemon Oil Sfumatrice (Raw):

Pale yellow mobile oil.

Zesty, green, true-to-nature, light sparkling topnote of extraordinary beauty and subtlety. This fleeting note rapidly vanishes giving way to an intense pleasant sweet citral-like body very characteristic of this oil. Basenotes are pleasant, green, slightly aldehydic, soapy, and quite longlasting.

The term ‘Sfumatrice’ refers to the machinery used for cold-extracting the essential oil from the fruit. If you are interested in knowing more about these machines I suggest you to take a look to these manufacturers:

Due to its furocoumarines content this product is limited to 2% in the finished product (leave-on products) by IFRA standards. You can download here the standard specific to this oil.

Furocoumarine-free – decolorized Lemon Oil:

Colourless mobile oil.

This quality closely resembles the cold pressed oil, especially in the middle notes, to a degree that is very difficult to differentiate between the two.

Light, green, subtle and natural refreshing topnote, a tad less sparkling than the ‘Sfumatrice’. Middle notes are typical sweet citral-like. Basenotes are less interesting and less longlasting than the raw oil, more citrusy, heavier and greener, but still refreshing and lemony in the overall aspect.

Free from any colour and phototoxic effect concerns.

To sum up: the two qualities are very close and almost equivalent. The ‘sfumatrice’ oil is more interesting (topnotes and dry-down in particular), however there may be phototoxic issues at high %. The FCF-decolorized oil is more versatile.

You might be interested in the supplier’s website (Simone Gatto), where you can find interesting information about citrus oils, varieties and extraction methods.

See the footnote on Bergamot Oil about old and oxidized oils.

I should add that, unlike oxidized bergamot oils, old oxidized lemon oils are much worse, smelling thicker, woody, almost caramelized. The light, fresh, joyful topnotes have disappeared completely. Basenotes smell turpentine-like.


Still life - photo:

Still life – photo:

Cultivar: Femminello, Castagnaro and Fantastico
Geographical origin: Calabria

Raw Bergamot Oil (cold pressed):

Green-yellow mobile oil.

At first it strikes you with a fresh zesty (lemony), green, aromatic topnote. It then evolves in a soft, sweet, velvety odour.

There is some sort of elegant coherence in the evolution that surprises me: a sparkling agrestic ouverture, which soon gives way to a soft, bright, fruity body. Then, it slowly settles down into a perfectly balanced leafy, fruity, powdery, almost silky-leathery base. A beautiful contrast of lights and shadows. A sulfury, sweet-harsh, radish-like, veiled animalic accent perfectly counterpoints the fresh sweetness of the body. An interesting note that is extremely natural and very characteristic of this oil.

Due to its furocoumarines content this product is limited to 0,4% in the finished product (leave-on products) by IFRA standards. You can download here the standard specific to this oil.

Furocoumarine-free – decolorized Bergamot Oil:

Colourless mobile oil.

Very similar to the raw quality. Less green-aromatic, less interesting and subdued topnotes. More vertical and fruitier (linalyl acetate-like) and rounder, but some linalool-rosewood-like notes tend to stand out. Some soapy, floral, octanol-like details… Less citrusy (less D-limonene-like). The body is very nice and almost as good as the raw oil. It may lack some sparkle and the rounded sweet-leafy cushion in the base is more delicate.

I would say that this one is the standard quality for bergamot oil used in perfumery. The one I have smelled more often.

Still a good choice (in particular when a colourless product is wanted) and without phototoxic issues.

To sum up: the main differences between the raw quality and the FCF-decolorized one are the zesty topnote, the citrusy-green body, and some soft, animal, sulfury basenote in the former; the neat, pleasant fruity, linalyl acetate-like note that brightens up and rounds the body in the latter.

bergamot oil colour comparison - blotter test

You might be interested in the supplier’s website (Simone Gatto), where you can find interesting information about citrus oils, varieties and extraction methods.

A note about old and oxidized oils.

Citrus oils are very fragile and exposure to oxygen and heat can damage their olfactory properties.
It is suggested to store them in the cold (5-10° C) and prevent oxidation by limiting exposure to air as much as possible.

Once you have smelled fresh expressed oils, you will understand how delicate the fine details of these products are and can suffer from poor storage.

On comparing some old oils (>24 months and improperly stored) with a fresh one, you can still be able to smell the citrusy character. However, the aromatic, fresh-lemony topnotes are almost vanished and the sparkling greeness is now replaced by some sort of sweet, lime-like, piney, varnish-like effect in the drydown. Still quite pleasant (if you were expecting to smell awful rotting notes, you’ll be reassured). But definitely the beautiful ephemeral topnotes are gone, replaced by a dull sweet-citrusy scent, and the sweet, leathery base overwhelmed by resinous off-notes.

I warmly suggest to buy only fresh expressed oils and to store them properly.